El covid-19 grave puede causar daño en la función cerebral “equivalente a perder 10 puntos de IQ”

El deterioro cognitivo que sufren los pacientes con un episodio grave de covid-19 es el equivalente a perder 10 puntos de coeficiente intelectual, según descubrió un nuevo estudio.

Según científicos de la Universidad de Cambridge y del Imperial College de Londres, la pérdida cognitiva es similar a envejecer dos décadas, entre los 50 y los 70 años de edad.

Los hallazgos del estudio sugieren que los efectos aún son detectables más de seis meses después de la enfermedad aguda, y que cualquier recuperación es, en el mejor de los casos, gradual.

Adderall and flirting with bulimia in an attempt to whittle herself

Cada vez hay más pruebas de que el covid-19 puede causar problemas cognitivos y de salud mental duraderos, y los pacientes recuperados informan síntomas meses después de la infección.

Los síntomas que sufren los pacientes incluyen fatiga, “niebla mental”, problemas para recordar palabras, trastornos del sueño, ansiedad e incluso trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT).

Un estudio separado del Reino Unido encontró que alrededor de Una de cada siete personas encuestadas informaron tener síntomas que incluían dificultades cognitivas 12 semanas después de dar positivo.

Los investigadores afirman que entre un tercio y las tres cuartas partes de los pacientes hospitalizados informan que todavía sufren síntomas cognitivos entre tres y seis meses después.

Para explorar más a fondo el vínculo entre el covid-19 grave y el deterioro cognitivo duradero, el equipo analizó datos de 46 personas que recibieron atención hospitalaria —en la sala o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos— por covid-19 en el Addenbrooke’s Hospital, 16 de las cuales recibieron ventilación mecánica durante su estadía.

El estudio dijo que todos los pacientes fueron admitidos entre marzo y julio de 2020 y fueron reclutados para el estudio Covid-19 BioResource del NIHR (Instituto Nacional de Investigación en Salud y Atención Médica).

Los pacientes se sometieron a pruebas cognitivas computarizadas detalladas durante un promedio de seis meses después de su enfermedad aguda utilizando la plataforma Cognitron, que mide diferentes aspectos de las facultades mentales como la memoria, la atención y el razonamiento.

Según los autores del estudio, esta es la primera vez que se lleva a cabo una evaluación y comparación tan rigurosa en relación con las secuelas del coronavirus grave.

El estudio encontró que los sobrevivientes de covid-19 fueron menos precisos y con tiempos de respuesta más lentos que la población de control emparejada, y agregó que estos déficits aún eran detectables cuando los pacientes estaban en seguimiento seis meses después.

También descubrió que aquellos que requirieron ventilación mecánica sintieron el efecto más fuerte.

Al comparar a los pacientes con 66.008 miembros del público en general, el estudio estima que la pérdida cognitiva es similar en promedio a la que se sufre entre los 50 y los 70 años de edad, el equivalente a perder 10 puntos de coeficiente intelectual.

Estudios de imagen confirman cambios en el cerebro después de padecer covid-19

Los estudios de imagen confirman una reducción en el tamaño y en la materia gris del cerebro en las personas que se contagiaron de covid-19; la vacunación es clave para evitar desarrollar síntomas posteriores.

Estudios de imagen realizados en pacientes que se contagiaron de covid-19 muestran que esta enfermedad causa cambios en el cerebro, incluso cuando se trata de una infección leve.

Según lo publicado en la revista Nature, por medio de resonancias magnéticas antes y después de la infección de Sars-Cov-2, los investigadores hallaron diferencias significativas en el tamaño total del cerebro de los pacientes.

Las imágenes muestran una reducción en el diámetro y en la materia gris en las regiones relacionadas con el olfato y la memoria, incluso tras una versión leve de la enfermedad. Gwenaelle Douaud, quien encabeza el estudio y es profesora del Centro Wellcome de Neuroimagen Integrativa de la Universidad de Oxford, asegura que es normal que las personas pierdan entre un 0,2 y un 0,3 por ciento de materia gris cada año, pero los pacientes que habían sido infectados por el virus que provoca la covid-19, perdieron entre un 0,2 y un 2 por ciento adicional de tejido.

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